Jha P., Jha S., Pal B.C., Barat S. 2005. Behavioural responses of two popular ornamental carps, Cyprinus carpio L. and Carassius auratus (L.), to monoculture and polyculture conditions in aquaria. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 35 (2): 133-137.
Abstract. Experiments were conducted to document behavioural responses of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.) to monoculture and polyculture conditions in aquaria. Two parallel experiments, otherwise involving similar experimental protocols, were carried out with two batches of fish, fed with live tubifex worm (first batch) and live zooplankton (second batch). Each of the trials, randomized with respect to treatment, yielded data on aggressive encounters (chases, nips), both in presence and absence of food. The two species exhibited considerable variation in the extent and type of aggression displayed, koi carp being the more aggressive species. Frequency of attack increased in the presence of food. The impact of aggressive behaviour of koi carp was conspicuous by the increased level of attack on goldfish in polyculture trials in both experimental batches.
Keywords: koi carp, Cyprinus carpio, goldfish, Carassius auratus, aggressive behaviour, monoculture, polyculture conditions