Všetičková L., Adámek Z., Rozkošný M., Sedláček P. 2012. Effects of semi-intensive carp pond farming on discharged water quality. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 42 (3): 223–231.
Fish pond management can substantially modify the hydrological regime and ecological quality of receiving waters (usually rivers, canals, and ponds downstream in an interconnected system) with potentially positive or negative impacts on watershed functioning. To evaluate these effects with respect to carp pond management, the environmental impacts of semi-intensive farming on discharged water quality were monitored at four differently managed carp ponds, differing in trophic status (two eutrophic and two hypertrophic ponds).
Materials and methods.
Fundamental determinants of pond inflow and outflow water quality were monitored monthly from April to October 2009. Water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation were measured in situ whilst hydrochemical and microbiological parameters were assessed in the laboratory.
Compared to the inflow water, in the effluents there was a significant decline in numbers of bacterial loading indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, faecal coliform and mesophilic bacteria) in the outflow water. In ponds with the poor quality inflow water (downstream of water treatment plant discharges), a significant decrease was also registered in nutrients (N-NH4, N-NO3, total nitrogen, P-PO4, and total phosphorus) and organic loads? (five-day biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand) of pond effluents. At the pond supplied with good quality river water, however, the same determinants showed that effluent water quality worsened significantly. Total organic carbon and suspended solids increased in effluents of ponds with high fish biomass stocked.
The results demonstrate that, during the growing season, properly managed carp ponds represent ecosystems with high self-cleaning ability. They may play an important role in the nutrient balance, storage and trapping in agricultural landscape with high population density.
carp farming, pond aquaculture, pond effluents, bacterial loading, nutrients, water quality